Fraternal Rhesus Macaque twins, Mito and Tracker, have two different DNA mommies: their mother’s chromosomal DNA was injected into enucleated egg cells belonging to another Rhesus monkey female prior to fertilization.  The eggs were fertilized, in vitro, with donor sperm and implanted in yet another female who carried the healthy twins to term.

The nucleus, where chromosomal DNA is stored and protected, is not the only source of DNA in a mammalian cell.  Mitochondria have their own 16,569 bp genomes encoding 37 genes involved in the production of biological energy, ATP.  Mutations in these genes have been linked with human diseases More >